For the 1st time, this leading edge reference ebook surveys the Romantic Age via all points of British tradition, instead of in literary or inventive phrases on my own. This multi-disciplinary procedure treats Romanticism either in aesthetic terms--its that means for portray, track, layout, structure, and literature--and as a old epoch of "revolutionary" variations which ushered in smooth democratic and industrialized society.
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A remarkably perceptive and brilliant lifetime of one among England's maximum radicals. The early years of the 19th-century have been ones of distress and oppression. the typical humans have been compelled into stipulations of utmost poverty by way of enclosures and the rural Revolution, and the lengthy Tory management of Lord Liverpool observed its activity as conserving legislation and order in any respect expenditures.
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Additional resources for An Oxford Companion to The Romantic Age: British Culture 1776-1832
For something, patriotic job usually suppressed divisions inside of neighborhood élites, together with the enmities often found in company cities the place an ‘outsider’ crew challenged an entrenched municipal oligarchy. by means of arming the population, volunteering really supplied incentives for élite co-operation lest the élite be assailed through a monster of its personal making. nevertheless, the armed population of cities, just like the patriotic crowds, can be offered as strong actual manifestations of communal team spirit and concord. for 2 many years of conflict, patriotism in its city surroundings used to be pre-eminently a town-making strength. whereas the expansion and alter occurring in city societies usually proved to be past the potent keep watch over of city rulers, every kind of patriotic endeavour have been saved greatly within the fingers of the latter, and their civic beliefs by no means acquired greater commercial. Town-making and the statement of Scottish nationhood have been specific gains of the British nation which may still remind us that there persisted to be robust resemblances among Britain’s political constitution and people present in continental Europe. regardless of years of largescale conflict, bureaucratic centralization in Britain amounted to little or no, in order that a magnificent exhibit of authority and gear on the centre, just like a Georgian mansion and loved ones, seems to have depended mostly on what was once really performed via a scarcely seen military of functionaries, every one engaged in his neighborhood job. relatively little conﬂict came about in imperative politics among the small governing élite and people outdoor, just because the ability that 34 2 · battle mattered so much, the facility to manage neighborhood groups, used to be came upon in different places. In 1813–14 nice public campaigns, specifically identiﬁable with middle-class opinion, happened: petitions to open India to Christian missionaries and petitions for the abolition of the slave exchange via the ecu powers—over 500 addressed the latter factor. In 1816 the government’s purpose to delay the valuables or *income tax used to be crushed down via over two hundred representations. but it can't be acknowledged that such large mobilizations indicated a shift from middle-class localism to middle-class centralist objectives. As with different well known activities of this sort, those hobbies on nearer inspection are proven to have relied on neighborhood initiative with minimum outdoors course. additionally they have been in most cases reactive to occasions (and even faraway from family issues), and didn't represent an try and construct a sustained competition. in brief, Britain within the constitution of its public existence was once nonetheless an ancien régime. nationwide defence patriotism, which was once the nationalism of the age, used to be necessarily localized simply because that used to be the realm it encountered. Brewer, J. , The Sinews of energy: conflict, cash and the English kingdom 1688–1783, London, 1989; Colley, L. , ‘The Apotheosis of George III: Loyalty, Royalty and the British state 1760–1820’, previous and current, 102 (1984), 94–129; Britons: Forging the kingdom 1707‒1837, New Haven, Conn.