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By Catherine Higgs

“Catherine Higgs’s Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, and Colonial Africa is an elegantly written, well-illustrated account of the resultant investigations into this so-called new slavery in Africa orchestrated mostly through Cadbury and the British overseas place of work. …[The] research resonates this day, dealing, because it does, with the customarily tainted foreign origins of our later period of mass consumerism.” —American old Review

In Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, and Colonial Africa, Catherine Higgs strains the early-twentieth-century trip of the Englishman Joseph Burtt to the Portuguese colony of São Tomé and Príncipe—the chocolate islands—through Angola and Mozambique, and at last to British Southern Africa. Burtt have been employed by way of the chocolate enterprise Cadbury Brothers constrained to figure out if the cocoa it was once paying for from the islands have been harvested by way of slave employees forcibly recruited from Angola, an allegation that grew to become one of many grand scandals of the early colonial period. Burtt spent six months on São Tomé and Príncipe and a 12 months in Angola. His five-month march throughout Angola in 1906 took him from innocence and credulity to outrage and activism and eventually helped swap exertions recruiting practices in colonial Africa.

This fantastically written and fascinating shuttle narrative attracts on collections in Portugal, the uk, and Africa to discover British and Portuguese attitudes towards paintings, slavery, race, and imperialism. In a narrative nonetheless generic a century after Burtt’s sojourn, Chocolate Islands finds the idealism, naivety, and racism that formed attitudes towards Africa, even between those that sought to enhance the stipulations of its workers.

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Ltd. , to CB, November 2, 1904, CP 4/124; Satre, Chocolate on Trial, 29. 37. JB to WAC, April eleven, 1905, CP 4/161 (quote). 38. Carl de Merck to WAC, April eleven, 1905 CP 4/157 (first via 6th quotes); WAC to Merck, April 17, 1905, CP 4/158. 39. Carl de Merck to WAC, April eleven, 1905, CP 4/157; WAC to Merck, April 17, 1905, CP 4/158 (quotes). forty. The German enterprise Stollwerck additionally supported sending a consultant, while the yank company Baker declined, noting that each one the chocolate organizations within the usa “had imported simply four percentage of São Tomé’s construction in 1901. ” Satre, Chocolate on Trial, 27, 28 (quote); see additionally J. B. Monde, director, Rowntree & Co. , Ltd. , to Cadbury Bros. Ltd. , November 2, 1904, CP 4/124. bankruptcy 2: CHOCOLATE ISLAND 1. JB to WAC, June 15, 1905, JDC, 5–6; JB to WAC, June 26, 1905, JDC, 15 (quotes). 2. JB to WAC, June 15, 1905, JDC, 5–6; JB to WAC, June 18, 1905, JDC, 7 (quote); JB to WAC, August five, 1905, JDC, seventy two. three. JB to WAC, July 27, 1905, JDC, fifty six (first quote); Lowell Satre, Chocolate on Trial: Slavery, Politics, and the Ethics of commercial (Athens: Ohio collage Press, 2005), 32; Tony Hodges and Malyn Newitt, São Tomé and Príncipe: From Plantation Colony to Microstate (Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press, 1988), 30, 40–42; Augusto Nascimento, “S. Tomé and Príncipe,” in O Império Africano, 1890–1930, ed. A. H. de Oliveira Marques, vol. eleven of Nova História da Expansão Portuguesa, ed. Joel Serrão and A. H. de Oliveira Marques (Lisbon: Editorial Estampa, 2001), 253; William Gervase Clarence-Smith, The 3rd Portuguese Empire, 1825–1975: A examine in fiscal Imperialism (Manchester, united kingdom: Manchester collage Press, 1985), 87 (third quote). four. WAC to CB, March 17, 1903, CP 4/20; Carl de Merck to WAC, June 18, 1904, CP 4/78; Grande Enciclopédia Portuguesa e Brasileira (Lisbon: Editorial Enciclopédia, 1945), 33:856; JB to WAC, June 18, 1905, JDC, 7 (quotes). five. JB to WAC, June 18, 1905, JDC, eight (quotes). Burtt arrived in São Tomé aboard the Malange on June thirteen, 1905. Boletim Oficial de S. Tomé e Príncipe (hereafter BOSTP), no. 27, July eight, 1905, 201; William Gervase Clarence-Smith, Cocoa and Chocolate, 1765–1915 (London: Routledge, 2000), 121. 6. JB to WAC, June 18, 1905, JDC, 9–11; JB to WAC, September eleven, 1905, JDC, ninety nine. 7. JB to WAC, June 18, 1905, JDC, nine (first quote), 10, eleven (second quote); JB to WAC, August five, 1905, JDC, sixty one; Satre, Chocolate on Trial, 14; Hodges and Newitt, São Tomé and Príncipe, 15. eight. JB to WAC, June 26, 1905, JDC, thirteen (first quote); Caroline Alexander, One Dry Season: within the Footsteps of Mary Kingsley (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990), 5–6; Mary Kingsley, Travels in West Africa: Congo Français, Corisco and Cameroons, third ed. (1897; repr. , London: Frank Cass, 1965), 340 (second quote). nine. JB to WAC, June 26, 1905, JDC, 12; JB to WAC, September eleven, 1905, JDC, 86; Clarence-Smith, 3rd Portuguese Empire, forty eight, ninety eight, 103–4; Hodges and Newitt, São Tomé and Príncipe, 13–14, 17, 21, 29 (quote); Manuel Ferreira, “Gente do Mundo Português: O Barão de Água-Izé Figurado Império,” O Mundo Português nine, no.

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