By John Lagerwey, Marc Kalinowski
Jointly, and for the 1st time in any language, the 24 essays accumulated in those volumes offer a composite photo of the background of faith in historical China from the emergence of writing ca. 1250 BC to the cave in of the 1st significant imperial dynasty in 220 advert. it's a multi-faceted story of fixing gods and rituals that comes with the emergence of a kind of “secular humanism” that doubts the life of the gods and the efficacy of formality and of an imperial orthodoxy that founds its legitimacy on a contrast among licit and illicit sacrifices. Written by way of experts in various disciplines, the essays hide such topics as divination and cosmology, exorcism and medication, ethics and self-cultivation, mythology, taboos, sacrifice, shamanism, burial practices, iconography, and political philosophy.
Produced below the aegis of the Centre de recherche sur les civilisations chinoise, japonaise et tibétaine (UMR 8155) and the École Pratique des Hautes Études (Paris).
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Additional info for Early Chinese Religion, Part 1: Shang Through Han (1250 BC -220 AD)
37 Falkenhausen “Mortuary behavior,” pp. 116 ff. 38 Zhu Zhongxi, ed. , Qin Xi Chuiling qu (Beijing, 2004). shang and zhou funeral practices 127 of Prince Jing of Qin ནֆ (r. 576–537), the biggest in pre-imperial China, at Nanzhihui, Fengxiang county (Shaanxi), the place the necropolis of the principality was once located among the seventh and 4th centuries BC (Fig. 6). 39 This tomb has ramps, of a complete size of round 280 meters. It contained 166 human sufferers, either accompaniers and sacrificial sufferers. the 1st have been installed coffins of other kinds of wooden, positioned kind of close to the prince, most likely in response to where they occupied in his suite in the course of their lifetime, whereas the others have been buried with no coffin. The tomb was once 24 meters intensive. Composed of booths with speaking doorways within the style of a residing for the dwelling, the guo is complicated. this is often the 1st facts of such an inner association, yet because the tomb has been robbed a number of instances, we won't understand if the distribution of the furniture among the cubicles an association which already urged a residing. forty this type of phenomenon seems to be in one other web site of the overdue fifth century BC and regarding the Chu tradition, at Leigudun, Suizhou county (Hubei),41 after which within the 4th century within the tombs of the kings of Zhongshan խ՞, for example,42 and at Chu. forty three This remained, even though, a discreet phenomenon until eventually the overdue Warring States (3rd century BC). The tombs of the Qin aristocrats, grouped in unmarried lineage cemeteries, the present version of the Zhou cultural sphere, that's, a pit with vertical partitions on the backside of which used to be outfitted the guo that contained the coffin of the deceased and the burial gadgets. The tombs for individuals of extra modest status had no guo. a few of them, at the version referred to as “catacomb-tomb,” have been composed of shafts whose backside was once dug out laterally on the way to shape a chamber closed via a low wall of unfired adobe bricks, wooden or branches (Fig. 7). The physique of the deceased rested inside of with burial gadgets, deposited at his head usually. Tombs in jars additionally exist, however the phenomenon, which matches 39 Han Wei, “Lüelun Shaanxi Chunqiu Zhanguo Qin-mu,” Kaogu yu wenwu 1981. 1, 83–93; “Fengxiang Qin gong lingyuan zantan yu shijue jianbao,” Wenwu 1983. 7, 30–37; “Qin ling gailun,” Kaogu xue yanjiu (Xi’an, 1993). Reprint: Han Wei, Moyan shugao. Han Wei kaogu wenji (Beijing, 2001), pp. 52–68. forty Falkenhausen “Mortuary behavior,” pp. 118–19. forty-one Hubei sheng bowuguan, Zeng Hou Yi mu; Thote, “Burial practices,” pp. 90–96. forty two Hebei sheng wenwu yanjiusuo, Cuo mu — Zhanguo Zhongshan guo guowang zhi mu (Beijing, 1996). forty three Alain Thote, “Burial practices within the Chu state within the mild of modern discoveries: continuities and discontinuities,” in Roderick Whitfield and Wang Tao, eds, Exploring China’s earlier: new discoveries and stories in archaeology and artwork (London, 1999), pp. 89–204. 128 alain thote Fig. 6. Tomb of Prince Jing of Qin (Qin Jing Gong), died in 537 BC. After l. a. Chine 1985.