Scientists, engineers, and technologists in lots of fields want a wisdom of chemistry as a result significance of chemistry in varied applied sciences. additionally, to "classical" themes of chemistry, the recent Encyclopedia covers nanotechnology, gas phone expertise, eco-friendly chemistry, forensic chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, combinatorial chemistry, fabrics chemistry, and proteomics.
This 5th print variation has been revised and up to date, and contains over two hundred new articles, in addition to 1,300 up to date articles.
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Extra info for Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry, 5th Edition
One workforce includes water insoluble azo or anthraquinone dyes that experience be hugely dispersed to cause them to in a position to penetrating and dyeing acetate fibers. A moment category comprises waterinsoluble amino azo dyes which are made water soluble via therapy with formaldehyde and bisulfite. After absorption through the fiber, the ensuing sulfonic acids hydrolyze and regenerate the insoluble dyes. See additionally Dye and Dye Intermediates; and Dyes: Anthraquinone. ACETATE FIBERS. See Fibers: Acetate. ACETATES. See Acetic Acid; Fibers: Acetate. ACETIC ACID. [CAS: 64-19-7]. CH3 COOH, formulation weight 60. 05, colorless, acrid liquid, mp sixteen. 7◦ C, bp 118. 1◦ C, sp gr 1. 049. sometimes called ethanoic acid or vinegar acid, this compound is miscible with H2 O, alcohol, and ether in all proportions. Acetic acid is accessible commercially in different concentrations. The CH3 COOH content material of glacial acetic is nearly ninety nine. 7% with H2 O, the imperative impurity. Reagent acetic acid normally includes 36% CH3 COOH via weight. regular advertisement aqueous recommendations are 28, fifty six, 70, eighty, eighty five, and ninety% CH3 COOH. Acetic acid is the energetic factor in vinegar during which the content material levels from four to five% CH3 COOH. Acetic acid is assessed as a vulnerable, monobasic acid. the 3 hydrogen atoms associated with one of many carbon atoms aren't replaceable by way of metals. as well as the big amounts of vinegar produced, acetic acid in its extra centred varieties is a vital high-tonnage business chemical, either as a reactive uncooked and intermediate fabric for numerous natural syntheses and as an outstanding solvent. Acetic acid is needed within the creation of a number of artificial resins and fibers, prescribed drugs, photographic chemical compounds, flavorants, and bleaching and etching compounds. Early advertisement resources of acetic acid incorporated (1) the mixed motion of Bacterium aceti and air on ethyl alcohol in an oxidationfermentation method: C2 H5 OH + O2 −−−→ CH3 COOH + H2 O, an analogous response which happens whilst susceptible alcoholic drinks, similar to beer or wine, are uncovered to air for a chronic interval and which flip bitter due to the formation of acetic acid; and (2) the harmful distillation of wooden. a few traditional vinegars nonetheless are made by means of fermentation and advertised because the typical product, yet diluted commercially and synthetically produced acetic acid is a way more monetary path to stick with. The wooden distillation course was once phased out due to shortages of uncooked fabrics and the even more beautiful financial system of artificial techniques. an important man made strategies are (1) the oxidation of acetaldehyde, and (2) the direct synthesis from methyl alcohol and carbon monoxide. The latter response needs to continue lower than very excessive strain (approximately 650 atmospheres) and at approximately 250◦ C. The response occurs within the liquid part and dissolved cobaltous iodide is the catalyst. CH3 OH + CO −−−→ CH3 COOH and CH3 OCH3 + H2 O + 2CO −−−→ 2CH3 COOH. The crude acid produced first is separated from the catalyst after which dehydrated and purified in an azeotropic distillation column.